In the world of academia and research, “publish or perish” has become more complicated than ever. It’s not enough to merely publish, one has to publish in a high-impact journal, in the hopes of getting noticed, and more importantly, perhaps, getting funded for further research.
Institutions are urging their researchers to publish in high-impact journals. Library collections are on tight budgets, so librarians want only the best journals for their collections. Emphasis on impact and quality has given rise to a whole new realm of metrics by which to measure a journal. But which metric is best? What’s the magic bullet to definitively name a journal as The Best?
One of the most well-known journal metrics is the Journal Impact Factor (JIF). It seems like the JIF has invaded every aspect of the academic researcher’s world, but did you know it was developed for a very specific use?
JIF is defined as “a ratio of citations to a journal in a given year to the citable items in the prior two years.” It was intended as a simple measure for librarians evaluating the journals in their collections. In fact, the entirety of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) was developed for this purpose in the 1970s. Over the years, its utility to other markets has emerged – most importantly to publishers and editors of journals. It has also been misused to evaluate researchers, but Clarivate Analytics, formerly the IP & Science business of Thomson Reuters, has always been quite clear that JCR data, and the JIF in particular, should not be used as proxy measures for individual papers or people.
So is JIF the be-all and end-all of journal evaluation? No. The truth is, there is no one metric that can be used to name the best journals. Why not? “Best” is subjective, and so are metrics.
Sticking with the JIF for now, anyone seeking to evaluate a journal’s place in the research world should not simply look at its JIF; that number, on its own with no context, has limited meaning. Even in context, the JIF is just one number; the JCR contains an entire suite of metrics for journal evaluation, and other parties also offer journal evaluation metrics, such as the SCImago Journal Rank, or the Eigenfactor metrics, which are produced by Clarivate Analytics in partnership with the University of Washington.
Both Eigenfactor and Normalized Eigenfactor scores look at the data in a different way than the JIF does—they look at the total importance of a scientific journal in the context of the entire body of journals in the JCR. While JIF uses two years of data and is limited to the field in which a journal is classified, Eigenfactor scores look at the entire corpus of journals and five years of data. A journal could be ranked lower by its JIF than by its Eigenfactor (or Normalized Eigenfactor).
So which is better: Journal A with a higher JIF or Journal B with a higher Eigenfactor? Looking at just these two metrics will not answer the question. Perhaps Journal B also has a higher Article Influence Score—a score greater than 1 shows that a journal’s articles tend to have an above-average influence. Perhaps Journal A also has a higher Percent Articles in Citable Items, meaning it tends to publish more original research than reviews. Looking outside the JCR, perhaps Journal A has had a higher citation count in the past year, whereas Journal B skews more favorably looking at Altmetrics like page views or social media mentions.
Therefore, any statements about a journal’s impact need to include context. When you evaluate a journal, you should look at all of its metrics for the most complete picture, and this picture will vary by field and year.
Bottom line? While there is no magic bullet to determine the best journals, with the wealth of journal metrics out there, and whatever might come down the pipeline in the future, evaluating journals in context is not as difficult as you might think!
- Best Practices in Journal Evaluation
- All About the Eigenfactor
- JCR Blog Series
- JCR product information
Massimo Giunta is Account Manager UK & Ireland for Clarivate Analytics